Intriguing Group Dynamics 有趣的团体动力学
My recent post - Intriguing Group Dynamics - about the work of Wilfred Bion and his ideas around “Basic Assumption Mentality” and “Work-group Mentality” prompted a number of people to contact me directly for help. 我最近发表的关于威尔弗雷德·比昂的工作以及他围绕 "基本假设心态 "和 "工作团体心态 "的观点的文章-有趣的团体动力--让一些人直接与我联系寻求帮助。
They wanted to know how they could best manage groups or teams to reduce the likelihood of them developing Basic Assumption Mentality - shared unconscious assumptions that avoid or disrupt progress, built on the group’s wishes, fears, defences, projections and anxieties - and instead encourage Work Group Mentality - where a group is purposeful, productive, focused on its task, and able to manage conflict well. 们想知道如何才能最好地管理团体或团队,从而减少他们演变基本假设心态的可能性-共同的无意识的假设,避免或破坏进展,建立在团体的愿望、恐惧、防御、预测和焦虑之上-而是鼓励工作团体心态-团体是有目的的,有成效的,专注于其任务,并且能够很好地管理冲突。
How you do this will vary depending on the reason the group is together – for example, a project meeting, a training event, an offsite, or a group / team coaching session – but there are some key principles that you can draw upon to create optimal conditions for groups to collaborate, learn, develop and achieve together. 你如何做到这一点将取决于团体在一起的原因-例如,项目会议、培训活动、场外活动或团体/团队辅导课程-但有一些关键原则,你可以借鉴,可以为团体合作、学习、发展和共同实现创造最佳条件。
By way of background - over 20 years ago I worked – over several days - with what I could only then describe as a "group from hell". The experience was terrifying, deeply painful, and at the time, I was so shocked and bruised I swore I would never work with groups again. Yet I decided I had to find a way to recover, so I took myself off to study group dynamics, which changed my outlook entirely. Yes they behaved very badly. But I know now that I had not taken adequate care of their psychological safety needs, and so they reacted against me. Badly. But, as they say, 背景介绍:20多年前,我曾与一个我当时只能称之为 "来自地狱的团体 "一起工作过几天。那次经历非常可怕,非常痛苦,当时我非常震惊,伤痕累累,我发誓再也不与团体合作了。然而,我决定我必须找到一种方法来恢复,所以我让自己去学习团体动力学,这完全改变了我的观点。是的,他们表现得非常糟糕。但我现在知道,我没有充分照顾到他们的心理安全需要,所以他们对我做出了反应。很糟糕。但是,正如他们所说,
"Experience is what you get just after you needed it" "经验是在你需要它之后才能得到的东西"
So, here and in the next post I will share here some of mine so that you have it before you do! There are several things you can pay attention to. 所以,在这里和下一篇文章中,我将在这里分享我的一些经验,以便你在行动之前有所收获!有几件事你要注意一下。

1) Make it as SAFE as possible, as QUICKLY as possible. People will not collaborate or contribute if they don’t feel safe to do so. To achieve this:

1) 尽可能快地使它安全。如果人们觉得不安全,他们就不会合作或作出贡献。为了实现这一点:
* Have a tried and tested framework to help you to manage the group’s psychological safety needs, such as The Thinking Environment ( 有一个经过测试的框架来帮助你管理团体的心理安全需求,如思考环境(。 译者注:
* Communicate as much practical information for example about the purpose, pre-work, location, journey, etc as you can beforehand. People who arrive in an uncertain or anxious state can continue to be so – and spread it. 事先尽可能多地交流实际信息,例如关于目的、前期工作、地点、旅程等。处于不确定或焦虑状态的人可以继续这样下去-并将其扩散。
* Allocate clear roles and responsibilities to your colleagues for welcoming arrivals; don’t leave people hanging around on their own. Be welcoming. 为你的同事分配明确的角色和责任,以欢迎他们的到来;不要放任人们纠结于自己的事情上。要热情。
* Choose the room (s) carefully – a room with glass walls, uncomfortable seating, outside noise etc is not conducive to safety. If you’re stuck with glass walls, try to adjust seating so the faces of participants aren't easily visible to those outside. 仔细选择房间 - 有玻璃墙、不舒服的座位、外部噪音等的房间不利于安全。如果你坚持用玻璃墙,尽量调整座位,使参与者的脸不容易被外面的人看到。
* Consider who is coming and why they are there. Address what I call “sent” issues (where someone hasn’t opted to be there but has been told or sent) and normalize their concerns lightly and with good humor: “I expect some of you are a little uncertain about what this session is all about, or maybe even would rather be somewhere else?!” 考虑到谁会来,以及他们为什么会来。解决我所说的 "被派来的 "问题(即有人没有选择到场,但被告知或被派来),并以良好的幽默感解决他们的担忧。"我估计你们中的一些人对这次会议的内容有点不确定,或者甚至可能宁愿去别的地方?!"

2) Make it as EASY as possible for people to participate. To achieve this:

2) 尽可能让人们轻松地参与。为了实现这一点:
* Invite everyone to speak at the start. People haven't "arrived" until they have spoken so let them land, in person, and if the group is too big to go around everyone for safety or practical purposes, invite them to talk in pairs or in smaller groups so they can introduce themselves and connect with others. 邀请每个人在开始时发言。如果团体太大,出于安全或实际的目的,无法绕过每个人,请他们以两人或小组的形式交谈,这样他们就可以介绍自己并与其他人联系。
* If discussion stalls in large groups divide people into smaller groups or pairs. The smaller the group or subgroup, the safer (unless you have paired people with their boss without checking first!). 如果讨论在大组中停滞不前,就把人们分成小组或两人一组。小组或分组越小,越安全(除非你没有先检查就把人们与他们的老板配对!)。
* Use “rounds” regularly to foster engagement and equality so that anyone can speak if they wish to, knowing they will have a turn, without trying or having to interrupt someone or to remain silent because of hierarchy or strong personalities. 经常使用 "轮次 "来促进参与和平等,这样任何人都可以在他们想发言的时候发言,知道他们会有轮到的机会,而不会因为等级制度或强烈的个性而试图或不得不打断别人或保持沉默。
* Don’t threaten the group’s self-esteem with overly easy tasks, or impossibly hard tasks straight away. Allow time for confidence to grow and allow the group to reflect on each experience. But be aware of the pace - if you rush or go too slowly you can meet with resistance. 不要用过于简单的任务或不可能完成的任务直接威胁小组的自尊心。给予时间让信心增长,并允许小组对每一次经历进行反思。但是要注意节奏-如果你急躁或太慢,你就会遇到阻力。
NB - I am by no means saying that groups cannot take on challenging dynamics and tasks. That's a normal part of learning and progression. BUT if you have not created the right environment to make participation and learning possible as soon as possible, you will be spending more time and energy on repairing the damage than on developing and growing the group. My somewhat brutal experience of learning about groups came at great personal cost - it doesn't have to be the same for others! 注意:我绝不是说团体不能接受具有挑战性的动态和任务。那是学习和进步的正常部分。但是,如果你没有创造正确的环境,使参与和学习成为可能,你将会把更多的时间和精力花在修复损害上,而不是花在发展和壮大团体上。我在学习团体的过程中,有一些残酷的经历,付出了很大的个人代价--对其他人来说,不一定是这样的!
In the next post I will look at how to manage a group's "projections" and its effects on your own psychological safety so that managing even a "group from hell" will not be impossible. If you would like to read that, make sure you follow me. 在下一篇文章中,我将探讨如何管理团体的 "投射 "及其对你自己心理安全的影响,这样即使管理一个 "来自地狱的团体 "也不会是不可能的。如果你想读到这些,请务必关注我

Reading and further information

Bion, W.R. Experiences in groups and other papers, 1961. Latest edition Routledge Nov 1998.
Thornton, Christine. Group and Team Coaching, the Essential Guide. Routledge, 2010
The Centre for the Study of Groups and Social Systems 团体和社会系统研究中心