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对话导向象限(译)

I had a beautiful (and quirky) dog, Cookie, who joined many of the online classes I taught as she practically lived on my lap until she crossed the rainbow bridge at her good old age. People often asked what breed she was and it was a mouthful: Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. It is so long that even the breed name is officially abbreviated as CKC. Each time I introduced her, it seemed rather amusing that a cute little lap dog would have such a serious brand.
我之前有一只漂亮有点古怪的狗,叫饼干,它参加了许多我教授的在线课程,因为它其实趴在我的腿上,直到它老了,魂过彩虹桥。人们经常会问,它是什么品种,可以脱口而出的是:骑士查理王猎犬。这个血统名很长,通常缩写为CKC。每次我介绍它,这么可爱的小狗狗竟然有这么严肃的品种名称,我就觉得很有意思。
And here I am once again feeling that way introducing the beloved map we've been using in our coach training in the last two years or so. It's a simple (and possibly easy) map with a serious name with somewhat good reasons (see the posts Good Reason #1, and Good Reason #2 for more).
在这里,我将再次以这种方式介绍我们曾经在过去的两年教练培训中使用的心爱的地图工具。这是个简单(也可能容易)的地图工具,有一个严肃的名字,也有一些好的理由(参见下面的文章获得更多信息:好的理由#1和好的理由#2)
This map is inspired by the work of the international microanalysis associates, Joel Simon, and Lance Taylor who taught me to focus on making the co-construction visible when I coach and teach by inductively examining how we respond in interaction.
这个地图工具的灵感源自国际微观分析协会的Joel Simon和Lance Taylor,当我通过归纳检验来教练和教授如何在互动中做出反应时,他们教会我聚焦于让共建可见。

Observation #1: Timeline of the Narrative 观察#1:叙事的时间线

We hear this not only in dialogues that happen in a coaching setting but other ordinary conversations among friends, colleagues, and families. There seems to be an inherent timeline in our narrative. Here's a little excerpt from my conversation with Andrew who was going for a major change in his career.
我们可以听到这个,不只在教练设定中,也可以在朋友、同事和家人之间的日常对话里听到。在我们的叙事里似乎总有一个固定的时间线。这是我和Andrew对话中的一小段节选,他打算在他的职业生涯中做一个重大的改变。
I have been wanting to make this move, and now I feel that it's the right time. I used to be very anxious about confronting people but obviously, not anymore. I used to worry about how people might think or feel about me, and that took some time to get over. And now this opportunity came up a bit earlier than I thought and I started to panic a bit. But, oh well, you could never be fully ready, right? (Excerpt from Surfing the Landslide, 2016)
我一直想迈出这一步,现在我感觉到时候了。我过去非常害怕面对别人,但是很明显,不再是了。我过去很担心人们对我的看法或者感觉,那花了好长时间才克服。现在,这个机会比我认为的来的要早,开始的有点小恐慌。但是,对吧,你永远不可能完全准备好。(节选自Surfing the Landslide, 2016)
What might you say here? Wait, before we think about what we might say next, what did you hear? What intrigues your next response - whether a statement or a question or a smile or all of the above? If we were to look at what Andrew said in terms of timeline, what did you hear that he said about his past, and what about his future? Where would you plot them on this horizontal timeline?
你在此会说什么?等等,在我们考虑接下来要说什么之前,你听到了什么?是什么引起了你的下一个反应-是一个陈述、一个问题、一个微笑,还是上面所有的?如果我们从时间轴的角度来看Andrew所说的,你听到他说了什么关于他的过去,什么关于他的未来?你会把它们画在水平时间线的哪个位置?

Observation #2: Content of the Narrative 观察#2:叙事的内容

In a conversation like coaching that can be a bit more polarized than other ordinary conversations, the content of people's narrative can be mapped on a spectrum between good stuff and not so good stuff. As you can imagine, the good stuff is what people want to see continue, increase, and grow in their life: interactions, moments, experiences, thoughts, decisions, attitudes, feelings, and hopes that people want more of in their life. The opposite end is the not-so-good stuff that people want less of. Borrowing from the work of Microanalysis of Face-to-Face Dialogue (MFD), these can be termed Positive Content and Negative Content. Going back to what Andrew said, how might you map what he said?
在象教练这样的对话中,对话的内容可能比普通对话更两极化,人们的叙述内容会在好和不好之间映射一个光谱。你可以想象,好的东西是人们想看到的,继续、增加和在他们的生活中成长:交互、时刻、经历、想法、决定、态度、感受,以及我们在生活中想要的更多的希望。相反的一端是不好的东西,人们不想它。借用面对面对话微观分析(MFD)的工作,这些可以被称为积极内容和消极内容。回到Andrew所说的,你会将他所说的放到哪儿呢?
As you may have noticed, mapping the content may not be as clear as the timeline. Partially because we are only looking at the written text here void of other audible and visible acts of his meaning, and perhaps we have more room for making inferences when we are trying to map, or judge, if the content indicates good things or not-so-good things in someone else's life. But you get the gist of it. Borrowing from Korzybski (1933), it is a map after all, not the territory.
你可能已经注意到了,对内容的映射可能不象时间轴那么清晰。部分因为我们仅仅是看书面的文字,忽略了他意思里的其它声觉和视觉行为,可能当我们试图在别人的生活里去映射、判断内容代表好或者坏的时候,我们可以有更多的空间。但是你已经知道要点了。借用Korzybski(1933)的观点,毕竟是地图而已,而不是领土。
Putting the timeline and the content together, voilà, we have the quadrant. For now, let's call them: Positive Future (Q1), Positive Past (Q2), Negative Past (Q3), and Negative Future (Q4). Simple enough?
把时间轴和内容放在一起,瞧,我们就有了象限。现在,我们可以称它们为:积极的未来(Q1)、积极的过去(Q2)、消极的过去(Q3),以及消极的未来(Q4)。足够简单吧?

Observation #3: Orientation of the Narrative 观察#3:叙事的导向

In coaching, which quadrant(s) should a coach focus on? Which quadrant(s) would be most useful? Without overthinking it, most coaches answer Q1 (Positive Future). Yes, yes, Q2, Q3, and Q4, they are all useful although some may not be necessary. Whether you think Q1 or any other quadrants, the question isn't about which quadrant, but more so about are we doing what we say we are doing?
在教练过程中,哪(几)个象限是教练需要关注的?哪(几)个象限最有用?如果不假思索,多数教练会回答Q1(积极的未来)。是的,是的,Q2、Q3和Q4,它们都是有用的,虽然有可能不是必要的。无论是你认为Q1还是其它象限,问题都不是哪个象限,而是我们在做我们所说的我们在做的吗?
One of the most profound lessons I learned from MFD is watching how questions work. As Healing & Bavelas (2011) said, “All questions are ‘loaded questions’; the practitioner’s choice is how to ‘load’ them with presuppositions that will be useful to the client.” Clients often accept our presuppositions and they orient toward what we ask for.
我在面对面对话微观分析里学到的最深刻的教训之一就是观察问题是如何工作的。正如Healing和Bavelas(2011)所说的,“所有问题都是‘加载了的问题’;实践者的选择是如何按对客户有用的预设‘加载’它们”。客户通常会接受我们的预设并按照我们所要求行事。
Let's consider the following popular opening questions that you can easily find on YouTube. What are the presuppositions? Which quadrant are they orienting our clients to look? How might that function?
让我们考虑一下可以在YouTube上很容易被找到的开场问题。预设是什么?它们它我们的客户导向哪个象限?这是如何运作的?
  • "What brought you here today?"
  • "How can I help you?"
  • "How will you know that this was useful for you?"
  • 今天是什么把你带到这儿来了?
  • 我怎样能帮助到你呢?
  • 你怎么知道这会对你有用呢?
Tape after tape, our clients cooperated by going where the questions directed their attention to. These unchallenged presuppositions were accepted as a mutually understood common ground to stand on. That orientation happens in the beginning, it happens in the middle of it, and it happens throughout the conversation with our gestures, mhms, formulations, and questions. After all, all we can do is orienting, not moving, the client toward what they want more of. That's the hard part of the easy work of coaching.
磁带一卷又一卷,我们的客户很配合,去向了问题让他们关注的方向。这些没有被挑战的预设被接受为共同认同的一致立场。这种导向发生在开始阶段,发生在对话的中间位置,贯穿整个对话过程,包括我们的手势、语言、公式和问题。毕竟,所有我们可以做的只是导向,而不是移动,让客户朝着他们想要的方向发展。这是教练轻松工作中最困难的部分。

Thoughts: Using the Tool for Its Intended Use 思考:按其预期用途使用工具

As mentioned earlier, the DOQ is developed as a tool with a specific intention. We have found this to be a useful learning tool when used for observation and reflection. Observation needs an object to watch - a conversation in this case - and reflection requires making sense of what we notice.
如前所述,DOQ是作为一种特定目的的工具而开发的。我们发现,在观察和反思时,这是一个很有用的学习工具。观察需要一个观察对象-在这种情况下是一场对话-而反思需要弄清楚我们所要注意的东西。
Inspired by many practitioners we've met on the way, the quadrants are named this way:
受到我们在路上遇到的一些实践者的启发,象限是如此命名的:
When taught as a concept without practice, this model carries a significant risk of reducing the sophisticated dialogic process to a clunky two-by-two. Pull out your old tape if you have one, record a new one with your phone, and sit and observe:
当它被作为一个概念教授而没有实践时,这个模型会带来很大的风险,即把复杂的对话过程简化为笨拙的二乘二矩阵。如果你有,就拿出你的旧磁带,用你的手机录上一段新的,然后坐下来观察:
  • How are your questions orienting your clients?
  • Map your client's responses on the map as much as you can preserving their language.
  • Out of all the building blocks on the map (or not), which ones did you respond to? How come? How did you respond?
  • After your response (however micro or macro), what happened to the client's narratives and utterances? Does it shift from one quadrant to another? Does it stay?
  • What are some other ways of responding in each of the quadrants? (See Opportunities paper by Joel Simon and Lancy Taylor for this idea)
  • 你的问题是如何引导你的客户们的?
  • 将客户的回答映射到象限中,尽可能保留客户的语言。
  • 在映射中的所有内容中(或没有),你回应了哪些?怎么来的?你如何回应的?
  • 在你回应之后(无论是宏观的还是微观的),客户陈述和话语发生了什么变化?它从一个象限转移到另一个象限了吗?还是停留了?
  • 在每个象限中,还有哪些其它的回应方式?(关于这个想法,请参阅Joel Simon和Lancy Taylor关于机会的论文)
I hope this is useful and usable in your coaching conversations for many of you.
我希望对你们中许多人的教练对话是有用而且可用的。
Now, listen around, you'll hear it.
现在,仔细听,你会听到。
Reference: Healing, S., & Bavelas, J. (2011) Can Questions Lead to Change? An Analogue Experiment. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 30 (4), p.46).