欣赏式探寻的原则
欣赏式探寻到底有几大原则?5大原则?8大原则?10大原则?

5大8大10大原则?

10月底参加五毛老师的课程,里面有提到欣赏式探寻的8大原则。这个查了一下来源,确实是原来有5条核心原则,后来又新增了3条,啊不,是5条。
以下是核心原则: CORE APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY PRINCIPLES | 欣赏式探寻核心原则 The Core Principles of Appreciative Inquiry, which describe the basic tenets of the underlying Ai philosophy, were developed in the early 1990’s by David Cooperrider and Suresh Srivastva (Cooperrider’s advisor at Case Western Reserve University). The five original principles are: Constructionist, Simultaneity, Anticipatory, Poetic, and Positive. 欣赏式探寻的核心原则,它描述了欣赏式探寻潜在哲学的基本原则,它是由David Cooperrider和Suresh Srivastva (Cooperride在凯斯西储大学时的顾问)。这五项原始的原则是:建构性原则、同时性原则、预见性原则、诗意性原则以及正向性原则。
  • 建构性原则(The Constructionist Principle):我们不是描述我们所看到的世界,而是看到所看到的世界 WORDS CREATE WORLDS | 文字创造世界
    Reality, as we know it, is a subjective vs. objective state and is socially created through language and conversations. 现实,正如我们所知那般,是一种主观与客观的状态,它是通过语言和对话在社会上创造出来的。
  • 同时性原则(The Simultaneity Principle):探询创造了改变,提问的同时,就启动了领导和改变 INQUIRY CREATES CHANGE | 探询产生变化
    Inquiry is an intervention. The moment we ask a question, we begin to create a change. “The questions we ask are fateful.” 探寻是一种干预。从我们提出问题的那一刻开始,我们就开始创造了改变。“我们所问的问题是决定性的。”
  • 诗意性原则(The Poetic Principle):组织就像一本书或一首诗,看的角度不同就会有不同的感觉 WE CAN CHOOSE WHAT WE STUDY | 我们可以选择学习什么
    Teams and organizations, like open books, are endless sources of study and learning. What we choose to study makes a difference. It describes – even creates – the world as we know it. 团队和组织,就象打开书本一样,是研究和学习的无尽源泉。我们选择学习什么会带来不同。它描述甚至创造了我们所知道的世界。
  • 预见性原则(The Anticipatory Principle):正向的未来形象会激发正向行动 IMAGE INSPIRES ACTION | 想象激发行动
    Human systems move in the direction of their images of the future. The more positive and hopeful the image of the future, the more positive the present-day action. 人类系统会向着他们对未来的想象方向前进。对于未来的想象越积极和充满希望,当下的行动就越积极。
  • 正向性原则(The Positive Principle):发展强项比矫正弱点更有效果 POSITIVE QUESTIONS LEAD TO POSITIVE CHANGE | 积极的问题带来积极的变化
    Momentum for [small or] large-scale change requires large amounts of positive affect and social bonding. This momentum is best generated through positive questions that amplify the positive core. 小或者大规模改变的动力都需要大量的积极影响和社会联系。这种动力最好通过那些放大了正向核心的积极的问题来产生。
来源:Cooperrider, D.L., & Whitney, D. A Positive Revolution in Change: Appreciative Inquiry. Taos, NM: Corporation for Positive Change, 1999.
新增的原则(目前课上和书里都只引用了3条): EMERGENT APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY PRINCIPLES | 欣赏式探寻新增原则 Additional principles that have surfaced throughout the years that are based on, or constructed from, the five original core Ai principles. 附加原则就是这些年来出来的基于或者由原始的5条欣赏式探寻核心原则构建的。
  • 整体性原则(The Wholeness Principle):我们都是更大整体的一部分,整体大于部分之总和 WHOLENESS BRINGS OUT THE BEST | 整体性带来最好的一面
    Wholeness brings out the best in people and organizations. Bringing all stakeholders together in large group forums stimulates creativity and builds collective capacity. 整体性能让人和组织发挥出最好的一面。将所有利益相关方聚集在大型团队论坛之中,可以激发创造力,创造集体能力。
  • 预演性原则(The Enactment Principle):要创造改变,我们要先成为那个改变 ACTING "AS IF” IS SELF-FULFILLING | “假装”是一种自我具足
    To really make a change, we must “be the change we want to see.” Positive change occurs when the process used to create the change is a living model of the ideal future. 要真正地做出改变,我们必须“成为那个我们想看到的改变”。当创造改变的过程是一个理想未来的生活模式的时候,积极的改变就会发生。
  • 自主性原则(The Free Choice Principle):当人能自由作选择时,我们会更有成就感与责任感 FREE CHOICE LIBERATES POWER | 自由选择解放能力
    People perform better and are more committed when they have the freedom to choose how and what they contribute. Free choice stimulates organizational excellence and positive change. 当人们可以自由选择如何和贡献什么的时候,他们会表现得更好,也更有责任感。自由选择激发组织的卓越而积极的改变。
来源:Whitney, D. & Trosten-Bloom, A. The Power of Appreciative Inquiry. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler, 2003.[见推荐书目]
新增的原则还有:
  • 叙事性原则(The Narrative Principle)STORIES ARE TRANSFORMATIVE | 故事即是变革
    We construct stories about our lives (personal and professional) and live into them. 我们构建关于我们生活(个人以及专业上的)的故事,并生活于其中。 来源:Barrett, F. & Fry, R. Appreciative Inquiry: A Positive Approach to Cooperative Capacity Building. Chagrin Falls, OH: Taos Institute Publishing, 2005.
  • 认知原则(The Awareness Principle)BE CONSCIOUS OF UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS | 注意潜在的假设
    Understanding and being aware of our underlying assumptions are important to developing and cultivating good relationships. Practicing cycles of action and reflection can build one’s self-awareness. 理解并认识到我们潜在对于发展和培养良好关系的假设是重要的。对于行动和反思的实践循环可以建立一个人的自我意识。 来源:Stavros, J. & Torres, C. Dynamic Relationships: Unleashing the Power of Appreciative Inquiry in Daily Living. Chagrin Falls, OH: Taos Institute Publishing, 2005.
参考书:
1 欣赏式探询团队协作案例集:21个优势工作坊 [Appreciative Inquiry for Collaborative Solutions:21 Strength-based Workshops],[美] 罗宾·斯特拉顿·博克赛尔(Robyn Stratton-Berkessel) 著,张树金 译, 2 欣赏式探询的威力:正向改变的实践技能指导[The Power of Appreciative Inquiry: A Practical Guide to Positive Change],[美] 黛安娜·惠特尼博士(Diana Whitney Ph.D.)(美)阿曼达‧赛思顿-布伦 (Amanda Trosten-Bloom) 著 高静 译 3 创建欣赏式探询团队:48个正向提问打造高效能团队 [Appreciative Team Building: Positive Questions to Bring out the Best of Your Team],[美] 黛安娜·惠特尼(Diana Whitney) 著,徐佩贤,郝红蔚 译

5大原则

How to Apply Appreciative Inquiry: A Visual Guide一文中引用的还是5项(这个网站我也挺喜欢的):
As Hammond reminds us (2013), “unlike a cookbook approach to change, Ai is a thought process – a way to approach change”.
Core principle
What it means
In specific
Constructionist
“Words create worlds”
People construct their understanding of reality through language and conversations. Reality is therefore subjective, not objective. Here, the narrative one has of oneself often is resorted to in order to justify certain actions and beliefs about the world. In other words, Ai is said to “treat social-psychological reality as a product of the moment, open to reconstructions” (Mishra & Jyotsna Bhatnagar, 2012).
Simultaneity
Inquiry creates change
Questions hold the potential to trigger immediate change. For instance, asking -with genuine curiosity and interest- why a person operates in a given way, will likely have a thought-provoking effect on the interlocutor. Alone, the person will begin to reflect on whether there are better, faster, and less stressful ways of proceeding with things. This created a momentary sense of openness encourages self-improvement and reflexivity.
Poetic
Life is expressed through story
Life can be understood as though it is a narrative. Like poetry and prose, these narratives ignites creativity and is interpreted differently by different people. Considering life in this way creates space to allow the processing of subjective feelings and emotions surrounding a situation, not just the gritty facts, in the same way that one does when taking in a poem or story.
Anticipatory
Imagination drives action
A vivid image of an internalized goal or vision is what inspires and motivates people to do things and improve themselves. If the image is framed in a positive and powerful fashion, it is likely that it will have a strong positive effect on an individual’s present and the next moves he will make. To add more practical detail to this point, Locke’s goal-setting theory may come in handy.
Positive
Positive questions enact positive change
The positive principle is about the emotional context in which the goal is framed. As such, encouragement, personal support and other forms of positive affect can have a pivotal effect on the way in which a person goes about enacting change. Even acknowledging and feeling grateful for the mere presence of others in one’s life can strengthen the extent to which a person feels empowered to embrace growth.